Ultrafine Particles Issued from Gasoline-Fuels and Biofuel Surrogates Combustion: A Comparative Study of the Physicochemical and In Vitro Toxicological Effects

December 26, 2023


Ana Teresa Juárez-Facio 1, Tiphaine Rogez-Florent 1, Clémence Méausoone 1, Clément Castilla 2, Mélanie Mignot 2, Christine Devouge-Boyer 2, Hélène Lavanant 2, Carlos Afonso 2, Christophe Morin 2, Nadine Merlet-Machour 2, Laurence Chevalier 3, François-Xavier Ouf 4, Cécile Corbière 1, Jérôme Yon 5, Jean-Marie Vaugeois 1 and Christelle Monteil 1
1 Univ Rouen Normandie, UNICAEN, ABTE UR 4651 F, 76000 Rouen, France
2 Univ Rouen Normandie, INSA Rouen, CNRS, COBRA, 76000 Rouen, France
3 Univ Rouen Normandie, INSA Rouen, CNRS, GPM-UMR6634, 76000 Rouen, France
4 Institut de Radioprotection et de Sureté Nucléaire, PSN-RES, SCA, LPMA, 91192 Gif-sur-Yvette, France
5 Univ Rouen Normandie, INSA Rouen, CNRS, CORIA, 76000 Rouen, France

Gasoline emissions contain high levels of pollutants, including particulate matter (PM), which are associated with several health outcomes. Moreover, due to the depletion of fossil fuels, biofuels represent an attractive alternative, particularly second-generation biofuels (B2G) derived from lignocellulosic biomass. Unfortunately, compared to the abundant literature on diesel and gasoline emissions, relatively few studies are devoted to alternative fuels and their health effects. This study aimed to compare the adverse effects of gasoline and B2G emissions on human bronchial epithelial cells. We characterized the emissions generated by propane combustion (CAST1), gasoline Surrogate, and B2G consisting of Surrogate blended with anisole (10%) (S+10A) or ethanol (10%) (S+10E). To study the cellular effects, BEAS-2B cells were cultured at air-liquid interface for seven days and exposed to different emissions. Cell viability, oxidative stress, inflammation, and xenobiotic metabolism were measured. mRNA expression analysis was significantly modified by the Surrogate S+10A and S+10E emissions, especially CYP1A1 and CYP1B1. Inflammation markers, IL-6 and IL-8, were mainly downregulated doubtless due to the PAHs content on PM. Overall, these results demonstrated that ultrafine particles generated from biofuels Surrogates had a toxic effect at least similar to that observed with a gasoline substitute (Surrogate), involving probably different toxicity pathways.

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