In vitro lung cell exposure at the air-liquid interface shows significant increase in publications.

November 10, 2023

Indicating a shift from animal testing towards alternative methods.

Sonja Mülhopt from our cooperation partner, the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), conducted impressive research on the number of publications covering the air-liquid interface for lung cell exposures. She utilized the Web of Science database (, employing keywords such as ‘air-liquid,’ ‘interface,’ ‘cells,’ ‘Air-Liquid Interface,’ and ‘in vitro exposure system.’

The results, spanning from 2000 to 2022, revealed nearly 4,000 publications, with an annual increase from 51 in 2000 to 361 in 2022. This trend demonstrates an impressive, exponential growth rate in our field over the past 22 years.

In the direct air/liquid interface exposure method, mammalian cells or tissues are exposed to airborne substances without being covered with culture media, unlike in submerged exposure. This approach more closely replicates human physiology, allowing for more credible and authentic results than those obtained through submerged exposure.

Researchers can cultivate various cell types from the respiratory tract on microporous membranes and expose them using VITROCELL® Technology.

The application areas are summarized under this link.

More information on the air-liquid interface.

More information on state of the art aerosol exposure technologies.

News overview