StefanPfuhlera, Janvan Benthemb, RodgerCurrenc, Shareen H.Doakd, MariaDusinskae, MakotoHayashif, Robert H.Heflichg, DarrenKiddh, DavidKirklandi, YangLuanj, GladysOuedraogok, KerstinReisingerl, ToshioSofunim, Frédériquevan Ackern, YingYango, RaffaellaCorvip
a Procter and Gamble, Mason Business Centre, Mason, OH, USA
b National Institute for Public Health and the Environment, Centre for Health Protection, Bilthoven, the Netherlands
c Institute for In Vitro Sciences, Inc., Gaithersburg, MD, USA
d Swansea University Medical School, Singleton Park, Swansea, SA2 8PP, Wales, UK
e Health Effects Laboratory, Department of Environmental Chemistry, NILU-Norwegian Institute for Air Research, Kjeller, Norway
f makoto international consulting, Ebina, Japan
g U.S. Food and Drug Administration/National Center for Toxicological Research, Jefferson, AR, USA
h Covance Laboratories Ltd, Otley Road, Harrogate, HG3 1PY, UK
i Kirkland Consulting, PO Box 79, Tadcaster, LS24 0AS, UK
j School of Public Health, Hongqiao International Institute of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, 200025, PR China
k L’Oréal R&I, Aulnay-sous-bois, France
l Henkel AG & Co KGaA, Duesseldorf, Germany
m Formerly National Institute of Health Sciences, Tokyo, Japan
n Triskelion B.V., Zeist, the Netherlands
o Guangdong Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Guangzhou, PR China
p European Commission, Joint Research Centre (JRC), Ispra, Italy
• Extensive progress made in development of 3D organ-based genotoxicity assays.
• 3D culture models represent major exposure routes: dermal, oral, inhalation.
• The 3D skin comet and MN assays are considered mature and sufficiently validated.
• Liver and airway model-based genotoxicity assays show promise but are at early stage.<