Emissions from a modern log wood masonry heater and wood pellet boiler: Composition and biological impact on air-liquid interface exposed human lung cancer cells

January 20, 2018


Tamara Kanashova1,4,7, Olli Sippula1,5, Sebastian Oeder1,2,3, Thorsten Streibel1,7,8, Johannes Passig1,8, Hendryk Czech7, Tony Kaoma15, Sean C. Sapcariu1,6, Marco Dilger1,9,10, Hanns-Rudolf Paur1,9, Christoph Schlager1,9, Sonja Mülhopt1,9, Carsten Weiss1,10, Carsten Schmidt-Weber2, Claudia Traidl-Hoffmann3,12, Bernhard Michalke13, Tobias Krebs1,14, Erwin Karg8, Gert Jakobi8, Sorana Scholtes1,8, Jürgen Schnelle-Kreis8, Martin Sklorz7, Jürgen Orasche8, Laarnie Müller8, Ahmed Reda8, Christopher Rüger7, Anika Neumann7, Gülcin Abbaszade8, Christian Radischat1,7, Karsten Hiller1,6, Julija Grigonyte5, Miika Kortelainen5, Kari Kuuspalo5, Heikki Lamberg5, Jani Leskinen5, Ilpo Nuutinen5, Tiina Torvela5, Jarkko Tissari5, Pasi Jalava5, Stefanie Kasurinen5, Oskari Uski5, Maija-Riitta Hirvonen1,5,11, Jeroen Buters1,2,3, Gunnar Dittmar1,4,15, Jorma K. Jokiniemi1,5, and Ralf Zimmermann1,7,8

1HICE – Helmholtz Virtual Institute of Complex Molecular Systems in Environmental Health – Aerosols and Health
2Center of Allergy and Environment (ZAUM), Helmholtz Zentrum Munchen and Technische Universität München, Munich, Germany, Member of the German Center for Lung Research (DZL)
3CK-CARE, Christine Kuhne Center for Allergy Research and Education, Davos, Switzerland
4Mass Spectrometry Core Unit, Max Delbruck Center for Molecular Medicine Berlin-Buch, Germany
5University of Eastern Finland, Department of Environmental Science, P.O. Box 1627, FI-70211 Kuopio, Finland
6Luxembourg Centre for Systems Biomedicine, University of Luxembourg, L-4362 Esch-Belval, Luxembourg
7Joint Mass Spectrometry Centre, Chair of Analytical Chemistry, Institute of Chemistry, University Rostock, Germany
8Joint Mass Spectrometry Centre, CMA – Comprehensive Molecular Analytics, Helmholtz Zentrum Munchen, Neuherberg, Germany
9Institute for Technical Chemistry (ITC), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Campus North, Karlsruhe, Germany and Vitrocell Systems GmbH
10Institute of Toxicology and Genetics (ITG), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Campus North, Karlsruhe, Germany
11National Institute for Health and Welfare, Department of Environmental Health, P.O. Box 95, FI-70701, Kuopio, Finland
12Chair and Institute of Environmental Medicine, UNIKA-T, Technische Universitat München and Helmholtz Zentrum München, Germany
13Research Unit Analytical BioGeoChemistry, Helmholtz Zentrum Munchen – German Research Center for Environmental Health GmbH, Neuherberg, Germany
14Vitrocell Systems GmbH, Waldkirch, Germany
15Proteome and Genome Research Laboratory, Luxembourg Institute of Health, Luxembourg

The consumption of wood fuel is markedly increasing in developing and industrialized countries. Known side effects of wood smoke inhalation manifest in proinflammatory signaling, oxidative stress, DNA damage and hence increased cancer risk. In this study, the composition and acute biological impact of emissions of state-of-the-art wood combustion compliances: masonry heater (MH) and pellet boiler (PB) were investigated. Therefore A549 cells were exposed to emission aerosols in an automated air-liquid interface exposure station followed by cytotoxicity, transcriptome and proteome analyses. In parallel, aerosols were subjected to a chemical and physical characterization. Compared to PB, the MH combustion at the same dilution ratio resulted in a 3-fold higher particle mass concentration (PM2.5) and deposited dose (PB: 27 ± 2 ng/cm2, MH; 73 ± 12 ng/cm2). Additionally, the MH aerosol displayed a substantially larger concentration of aldehydes, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) or oxidized PAH. Gene ontology analysis of transcriptome of A549 cells exposed to MH emissions revealed the activation of pro-inflammatory response and key signaling cascades MAP kinase and JAK-STAT. Furthermore, CYP1A1, an essential enzyme in PAH metabolism, was induced. PB combustion aerosol activated the proinflammatory marker IL6 and different transport processes. The proteomics data uncovered induction of DNA damage-associated proteins in response to PB and DNA double-strand break processing proteins in response to MH emissions. Taking together, the MH produces emissions with ahigher particle dose and more toxic compounds while causing only mild biological responses. This finding points to a significant mitigating effect of antioxidative compounds in MH wood smoke.

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