Particle and Fibre Toxicology 2014, 11:40 (doi:10.1186/s12989-014-0040-x)
Carola Endes1, Otmar Schmid2, Calum Kinnear1, Silvana Mueller3, Sandra Camarero-Espinosa3, Dimitri Vanhecke1, E. Johan Foster3, Alke Petri-Fink1,4, Barbara Rothen-Rutishauser1, Christoph Weder3 and Martin J.D. Clift.
1 BioNanomaterials, Adolphe Merkle Institute, University of Fribourg, Chemin des Verdiers 4, 1700 Fribourg, Switzerland
2 Comprehensive Pneumology Centre, Institute of Lung Biology and Disease, Helmholtz Zentrum München, Ingolstädter Landstraße 1, 85764 Neuherberg, Germany
3 Polymer Chemistry and Materials, Adolphe Merkle Institute, University of Fribourg, Chemin des Verdiers 4, 1700 Fribourg, Switzerland
4 Department of Chemistry, University of Fribourg, Fribourg, Switzerland
High aspect ratio nanoparticles (HARN) were analyzed at the air-liquid interface using the VITROCELL® Cloud technology. The successful approach towards investigation of the hazard of HARN aerosols in vitro are demonstrated by measured cytotoxicity, oxidative stress and inflammatory responses.
The challenge remains to reliably mimic human exposure to high aspect ratio nanoparticles (HARN) via inhalation. Sophisticated, multi-cellular in vitro models are a particular advantageous solution to this issue, especially when considering the need to provide realistic and efficient alternatives to invasive animal experimentation for HARN hazard assessment. By incorporating a systematic test-bed of material characterisation techniques, a specific air-liquid cell exposure system with real-time monitoring of the cell-delivered HARN dose in addition to key biochemical endpoints, here we demonstrate a successful approach towards investigation of the hazard of HARN aerosols in vitro.
A rapid (4 min), controlled nebulisation of CNC suspensions enabled a dose-controlled and spatially homogeneous CNC deposition onto cells cultured under ALI conditions.