Advanced in vitro exposure systems.

Aspects of nitrogen dioxide toxicity in environmental urban concentrations in human nasal epithelium.

7. Mar. 2010

Toxicol Appl Pharmacol.

2010 Jun 1;245(2):219-25. doi: 10.1016/j.taap.2010.03.003. [Epub ahead of print]

Authors
Koehler C., Ginzkey C., Friehs G., Hackenberg S., Froelich K., Scherzed A., Burghartz M., Kessler M., Kleinsasser N.

Department of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology, Plastic, Aesthetic and Reconstructive Head and Neck Surgery, University of Wuerzburg, Germany

 

Nasal epithelial cells of were cultured in an air-liquid interface and exposed to NO(2). After exposure, genotoxicity was evaluated by the Comet assay and the micronucleus test. Depression of proliferation and cytotoxic effects were determined using the micronucleus assay and trypan blue exclusion assay.

Abstract

Cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)) as part of urban exhaust pollution are widely discussed as potential hazards to human health. This study focuses on toxic effects of NO(2) in realistic environmental concentrations with respect to the current limit values in a human target tissue of volatile xenobiotics, the epithelium of the upper aerodigestive tract. Nasal epithelial cells of 10 patients were cultured as an air-liquid interface and exposed to 0.01 ppm NO(2), 0.1 ppm NO(2), 1 ppm NO(2), 10 ppm NO(2) and synthetic air for half an hour. After exposure, genotoxicity was evaluated by the alkaline single-cell microgel electrophoresis (Comet) assay and by induction of micronuclei in the micronucleus test. Depression of proliferation and cytotoxic effects were determined using the micronucleus assay and trypan blue exclusion assay, respectively. The experiments revealed genotoxic effects by DNA fragmentation starting at 0.01 ppm NO(2) in the Comet assay, but no micronucleus inductions, no changes in proliferation, no signs of necrosis or apoptosis in the micronucleus assay, nor did the trypan blue exclusion assay show any changes in viability. The present data reveal a possible genotoxicity of NO(2) in urban concentrations in a screening test. However, permanent DNA damage as indicated by the induction of micronuclei was not observed. Further research should elucidate the effects of prolonged exposure.

Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

PMID: 20214917 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

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