Advanced in vitro exposure systems.

3. Feb. 2022

Product News 02-1/2022

VITROCELL® Cloud Advanced Nebulizer

For liquid droplet sizes 9 – 12 μm with diffusor

Certain chemicals or formulations, for example nasal sprays, often have larger particle sizes than the mesh size of standard nebulizers (4.0 – 6.0 μm). The VITROCELL Cloud Advanced Nebulizer is enlarging the application areas of Cloud Exposure Systems. This special type offers the possibility to produce an aerosol containing particles in the range of 9.0 – 12.0 μm.
Our patented Cloud diffusor ensures a homogeneous distribution of even the larger droplet sizes in the Cloud Exposure Chamber. To avoid effects from larger droplet formations it has an integrated drain channel.

VITROCELL® Cloud Advanced Nebulizer  (PDF)

Read more

Comments (0) Number of views (630)

3. Feb. 2022

Effect of Atmospheric Aging on Soot Particle Toxicity in Lung Cell Models at the Air–Liquid Interface: Differential Toxicological Impacts of Biogenic and Anthropogenic Secondary Organic Aerosols (SOAs

Svenja Offer,1,2Elena Hartner,1,2Sebastiano Di Bucchianico,1Christoph Bisig,1Stefanie Bauer,1Jana Pantzke,1,2Elias J. Zimmermann,1,2Xin Cao,1,2Stefanie Binder,1,2Evelyn Kuhn,1Anja Huber,1Seongho Jeong,1,2Uwe Käfer,1,2Patrick Martens,2Arunas Mesceriakovas,3Jan Bendl,1,4,5Ramona Brejcha,1Angela Buchholz,6Daniella Gat,[...]

1 Joint Mass Spectrometry Center (JMSC) at Comprehensive Molecular Analytics, Helmholtz Zentrum München, Neuherberg, Germany
2 JMSC at Analytical Chemistry, Institute of Chemistry, University of Rostock, Rostock, Germany
3 Department of Environmental and Biological Sciences, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland
4 Institute for Chemistry and Environmental Engineering, University of the Bundeswehr Munich, Neubiberg, Germany
5 Institute for Environmental Studies, Faculty of Science, Charles University, Prague, Czech Republic
6 Department of Applied Physics, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland
7 Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Faculty of Chemistry, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot, Israel
8 Institute of Energy and Climate Research, Troposphere, Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Jülich, Germany
9 Department of Environmental Sciences, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland
10 Max-Delbrück-Centrum für Molekulare Medizin, Berlin, Germany
11 Institute of Computational Biology, Helmholtz Zentrum München, Neuherberg, Germany


Read more

Comments (0) Number of views (21)

1. Feb. 2022

Automation and Standardization—A Coupled Approach Towards Reproducible Sample Preparation Protocols for Nanomaterial Analysis

Jörg Radnik 1, Vasile-Dan Hodoroaba 1, Harald Jungnickel 2, Jutta Tentschert 2, Andreas Luch 2, Vanessa Sogne 3, Florian Meier 3, Loïc Burr 4, David Schmid 4, Christoph Schlager 5, Tae Hyun Yoon 6,7, Ruud Peters 8, Sophie M. Briffa 9 and Eugenia Valsami-Jones 9

1 Division 6.1, Federal Institute for Material Testing and Research (BAM), Unter den Eichen 44–46, 12203 Berlin, Germany;
2 Department of Chemical & Product Safety, German Federal Institute for Risk Assessment, Max-Dohrn-Strasse 8–10, 10589 Berlin, Germany; 
3 Postnova Analytics GmbH, Rankine-Strasse 1, 86899 Landsberg, Germany;
4 Centre Suisse d’Electronique et de Microtechnique (CSEM), Bahnhofstrasse 1, 7302 Landquart, Switzerland;
5 Vitrocell Systems GmbH, Fabrik Sonntag 3, 78193 Waldkirch, Germany;
6 Department of Chemistry, College of Natural Sciences, Hanyang University, Seoul 04763, Korea;
7 Institute of Next Generation Material Design, Hanyang University, Seoul 04673, Korea
8 Wageningen Food Safety Research, Wageningen University & Research, Akkermaalsbos 2, 6708 Wageningen, The Netherlands;
9 School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT, UK;


The aim of this publication is to discuss how and when automated preparation can enhance the quality of the measurement results. For modern apparatuses, the measurement conditions are recorded and saved in the metadata automatically. As a result, the main reason for varying results is the different sample preparation. An actual interlaboratory comparison is ongoing to investigate the effect of different preparation methods systematically for ToF-SIMS. An air–liquid interface was developed to show that automation is possible for rather complex samples. Biological samples can be prepared in a reproducible manner, under exactly the same conditions on a TEM grid for the analysis of size and shape. Furthermore, chemical analysis can be performed by means of mass spectrometry.


Read more

Comments (0) Number of views (213)

9. Dec. 2021

Iota-carrageenan extracted from red algae is a potent inhibitor of SARS-CoV-2 infection in reconstituted human airway epithelia

David Bovard b, Marco van der Toorn b, Walter K. Schlage a, Samuel Constant c, Kasper Renggli b, Manuel C. Peitsch b, Julia Hoeng b,
a Biology Consultant, Max-Baermann-Str. 21, 51429, Bergisch Gladbach, Germany
b PMI R&D, Philip Morris Products S.A, Quai Jeanrenaud 5, 2000, Neuchaˆtel, Switzerland
c Epithelix Sarl, 18 Chemin des Aulx, Plan-les-Ouates, 1228, Geneva, Switzerland


This study successfully demonstrates the exposure of human bronchial epithelial cultures to defined doses of nebulized Iota-carrageenan which were reproducibly generated and administered using the VITROCELL Cloud 12 system. 
The aim of this study was to further investigate the efficacy and safety of IC treatment on SARS-CoV-2 infection by using advanced in vitro models of human respiratory epithelium, the primary target and entry port of SARS-CoV-2. The experimental models were 3D cultures of reconstituted bronchial and nasal epithelia, representing the surface of the human upper respiratory tract. This apical exposure of reconstructed epithelia more closely mimics real-life exposure conditions and the absence of toxicity or any functional or structural impairment of the bronchial mucociliary epithelium demonstrates that topical treatment with nebulized IC is well tolerated at the effective concentrations. 


Read more

Comments (0) Number of views (661)

27. Nov. 2021

Agglomeration State of Titanium-Dioxide (TiO2) Nanomaterials Influences the Dose Deposition and Cytotoxic Responses in Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells at the Air-Liquid Interface

Sivakumar Murugadoss 1, Sonja Mülhopt 2, Silvia Diabaté 3, Manosij Ghosh 1, Hanns-Rudolf Paur 2,
Dieter Stapf 2, Carsten Weiss 3, and Peter H. Hoet 1,

1 Laboratory of Toxicology, Unit of Environment and Health, Department of Public Health and Primary Care, KU Leuven, 3000 Leuven, Belgium
2 Institute for Technical Chemistry, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, 76021 Karlsruhe, Germany
3 Institute of Biological and Chemical Systems—Biological Information Processing, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, 76021 Karlsruhe, Germany


In this study, they investigated the influence of agglomeration on the deposition and cytotoxic potency of TiO2 NMs at the ALI. Our results indicate that dose deposition and the cytotoxic potential are influenced by agglomeration, particularly for nano-sized TiO2 particles.


Read more

Comments (0) Number of views (525)

12. Nov. 2021

Product News 11/2021


Improved Sensor for High Precision Real-Time Dose Monitoring

The VITROCELL® sQCM 12 is the next step in the evolution of dosimetry methods in cell culture exposure systems. It simplifies the usage of conventional Quartz Crystal Microbalances suitable for VITROCELL® 12 modules while maintaining the working principle, precision and accuracy of the balances you’re used to.


Read more

Comments (0) Number of views (722)

11. Oct. 2021

In vitro genotoxicity of dibutyl phthalate on A549 lung cells at air–liquid interface in exposure concentrations relevant at workplaces

Stephanie Binder1,2,  Xin Cao1,2,  Stefanie Bauer1,  Narges Rastak1, Evelyn Kuhn1,  George C. Dragan3, Christian Monseé4, George Ferron1, Dietmar Breuer5, Sebastian Oeder1, Erwin Karg1, Martin Sklorz1, Sebastiano Di Bucchianico1, Ralf Zimmermann1,2

1 Joint Mass Spectrometry Center at Comprehensive Molecular Analytics, Helmholtz Zentrum München, Neuherberg, Germany
2 Joint Mass Spectrometry Center at Analytical Chemistry, Institute of Chemistry, University of Rostock, Rostock, Germany
3 Federal Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (BAuA)–Measurement of Hazardous Substances, Dortmund, Germany
4 Institute for Prevention and OccupationalMedicine of the German Social Accident Insurance (IFA), Institute of the Ruhr-Universität Bochum (IPA), Bochum, Germany
5 Institute of Occupational Safety of the German Social Accident Insurance (IFA), Sankt Augustin, Germany


This study aimed to expose A549 alveolar epithelial cells at the air–liquid interface in a VITROCELL® CLOUD 6 system to unravel the genotoxic and oxidative stress-inducing potential of dibutyl phthalate with concentrations relevant at occupational settings. Within this scope, a computer modeling approach calculating alveolar deposition of DBP particles in the human lung was used to define in vitro ALI exposure conditions comparable to potential occupational DBP exposures. 


Read more

Comments (0) Number of views (15)

27. Jun. 2021

Impact of Nanocomposite Combustion Aerosols on A549 Cells and a 3D Airway Model

Matthias Hufnagel 1, Nadine May 2, Johanna Wall 1, Nadja Wingert 3, Manuel Garcia-Käufer 3, Ali Arif 3, Christof Hübner 4, Markus Berger 5, Sonja Mülhopt 2, Werner Baumann 2, Frederik Weis 6, Tobias Krebs 5, Wolfgang Becker 4, Richard Gminski 3, Dieter Stapf 2, and Andrea Hartwig 1,

1 Department of Food Chemistry and Toxicology, Institute of Applied Biosciences, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, 76131 Karlsruhe, Germany;
2 Institute for Technical Chemistry, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen, Germany; 
3 Institute for Infection Prevention and Hospital Epidemiology, Medical Center—University of Freiburg, Faculty of Medicine, University of Freiburg, 79110 Freiburg, Germany;
4 Fraunhofer Institute of Chemical Technology, 76327 Pfinztal, Germany; 
5 Vitrocell® Systems GmbH, 79183 Waldkirch, Germany; 
6 Palas GmbH, 76229 Karlsruhe, Germany; 


This study was the first to investigate the toxicological effects of well characterized aerosols released during combustion of thermoplastic nanocomposites using an air–liquid interface exposure system. Even though studies on the toxicological potential of combustion-generated particulate matter as well as VOCs have been published, none of them was designed to investigate the effect of the native aerosol using appropriate realistic lung cell culture models. In the current study we investigated the combustion behavior of PE-based nanocomposites on a lab-scale burner. As nanoscaled fillers TiO2 NP, CuO NP, as well as CNT were chosen for this study, with TiO2 NP representing a commonly used insoluble and inert nanomaterial, CuO NP as a known in vitro cyto- as well as genotoxic nanomaterial, and CNT as a fiber-shaped nanomaterial.

Read more

Comments (0) Number of views (917)

21. Jun. 2021

In vitro hazard characterization of simulated aircraft cabin bleed-air contamination in lung models using an air-liquid interface (ALI) exposure system

Rui-Wen He a,b, Marc M.G. Houtzager c, W.P. Jongeneel a, Remco H.S. Westerink b, Flemming R. Cassee a,b

a National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), P.O. Box 1, 3720 BA Bilthoven, the Netherlands
b Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences (IRAS), Toxicology Division, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Utrecht University, P.O. Box 80177, 3508 TD Utrecht, the Netherlands
c The Netherlands Organisation for Applied Scientific Research, TNO, P.O. Box 80015, 3508 TA Utrecht, the Netherlands


This unique experimental “Mini-BACS + AES” setup is able to provide steady conditions to perform in vitro exposure under ALI conditions to aircraft engine oil and hydraulic fluid fumes, generated at respectively 350 ◦C and 200 ◦C. Exposure of the Calu-3 monoculture and Calu-3 + MDM co-culture lung cell models to high levels of aircraft engine oil and hydraulic fluid fumes under ALI conditions can reduce TEER and viabilities of the cells, induce cytotoxicity, and increase production of proinflammatory cytokines. Hydraulic fluid fumes are more toxic than engine oil fumes on the mass concentration of fume basis, which may be related to higher abundance of OPs and smaller particle size of hydraulic fluid fumes. The toxicological data clearly reflect the potential health risks during fume events in aircraft cabins.


Read more

Comments (0) Number of views (710)

15. Jun. 2021

VITROCELL® Cloud Alpha - A Family of Exposure Systems Suitable for Nebulized Solutions and Suspensions

Poster LIVe 2021 Kongress, 15th June 2021

Patrick Weindl, Heidi Ortolf-Wahl, Tobias Krebs

VITROCELL Systems GmbH, 79183 Waldkirch, Germany


Optimal Solution for Everyday Experiments  at the Air/Liquid Interface
The VITROCELL® Cloud Alpha series is our newest innovation and presents a great leap forward in automated exposure of cell cultures. It combines reliable exposure of cell cultures from the respiratory tract with ease of use. The series comprises the Cloud Alpha 6, - 12, - 96 and Cloud Alpha MAX – they represent an optimal solution for everyday experiments at the Air/Liquid Interface using 6-well, 12-well, 24-well or 96-sized inserts. We have run extensive tests to ensure the Cloud Alpha series devices match our standards in terms of the established characteristics for Cloud principle exposure devices: Deposition Efficiency, Spatial Deposition and Repeatability.

Read more

Comments (0) Number of views (644)
Back to Top