Alexandra Friesen 1, Susanne Fritsch-Decker 2, Sonja Mülhopt 3 , Caroline Quarz 1, Jonathan Mahl 3, Werner Baumann 3, Manuela Hauser 3, Manuela Wexler 3, Christoph Schlager 4, Bastian Gutmann 4, Tobias Krebs 4, Ann-Kathrin Goßmann 5 , Frederik Weis 5 , Matthias Hufnagel 1, Dieter Stapf 3 , Andrea Hartwig 1, and Carsten Weiss 2,
1 Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute of Applied Biosciences, Department of Food Chemistry and Toxicology, 76131 Karlsruhe, Germany
2 Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute of Biological and Chemical Systems, Biological Information Processing, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen, Germany
3 Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute for Technical Chemistry, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen, Germany
4 Vitrocell Systems GmbH, 79183 Waldkirch, Germany
5 Palas GmbH, 76229 Karlsruhe, Germany
In this study, we assessed the toxicological responses to mechanically (mCF) and thermo-mechanically treated PAN-based carbon fibers (tmCF), applied to BEAS-2B mono-, BEAS-2B/dTHP-1 co-, and BEAS-2B/dTHP-1/CCD-33Lu triple-cultures at an air–liquid interface. The results emphasize the need to further characterize the hazard of CF and the importance of determining exposure levels at workplaces as well as safety measures during the use of CF-containing materials. Moreover, the development and application of more complex in vitro models of the human lung help to establish new approach methodologies in the general field of particle and fiber toxicology and contribute to a reduction in in vivo investigations in the context of the 3R initiative.