Advanced in vitro exposure systems.

31. Dec. 2004

Comparative Assessment of Toxicities of Mainstream Smoke from Commercial Cigarettes

Taylor & Francis

Inhalation Toxicology 16:1-10, 2004

Detlef Ritter, Jan W. Knebel, and Michaela Aufderheide


Online monitoring of generated smoke aerosols with respect to particulate and gas-phase components, and direct exposure of A549 cell line using exposure conditions relevant to human smoking.Results are evaluated in measuring glutathione and ED50.

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31. Dec. 2004

A modified CULTEX® system for the direct exposure of bacteria to inhalable substances


Exp Toxic Pathol 2004; 55: 451-454

Michaela Aufderheide and Ulrich Mohr


Establishment of a novel experimental approach using an exposure device based on the cell exposure system CULTEX. This allows to investigate chemically and physically unchanged atmospheres like mainstream cigarette smoke by exposing bacteria of Salmonella typhimurium strains directly on the surface of culture media.

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31. Dec. 2003

Novel approaches for studying pulmonary toxicity on vitro

Toxicology Letters

ELSEVIER, 140-141 (2003) 205-211

Michaela Aufderheide, Jan W. Knebel, Detlef Ritter


The goal of this studiy is to analyze the biological effects of test atmospheres under environmental conditions without humidifying the atmosphere or adding additional CO2.

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30. Jun. 2003

In Vitro Tests for Gases and Aerosols - an Alternative Step into the Future

Fraunhofer News Report

Prof. Dr. Michaela Aufderheide


This News Report presents the screening method with the modular exposure unit, that can also help to reduce the number of experimental animals used. The research shows that in-vitro models are also suitable for future toxicologic investigations of gases and complex gas/particle mixtures as they actually occur in the environment. One advantage of these methods is the usage of human cells and tissues for screening studies. 

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30. Mar. 2003

Exposure of human lung cells to inhalable substances

Taylor & Francis

Inhalation Toxicology, 15:67-84, 2003

Detlef Ritter, Jan W. Knebel, Michaela Aufderheide


The experimental setup included online monitoring of the gas phase and particulate phase. A cell exposure of different smoke and synthetic air periods was sufficient to cause different effects as measured by intracellular glutathione content. The fact that the system could differentiate between different types of cigarette smoke demonstrated its high sensitivity and specificity. 

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25. Feb. 2003

An improved in vitro model for testing the pulmonary toxicity of complex mixtures such as cigarette smoke


Exp Toxic Pathol 2003; 55: 51-57

Michaela Aufderheide, Jan W. Knebel, and Detlef Ritter


The study presented a system that enables the direct exposure of human lung cells to native, unmodified cigarette mainstream smoke and also the demonstration of reproducible particle deposition depending on smoke concentration. Furthermore, it was shown that the exposed cells maintained their viability. The results were shown in measuring the cellular viability, ATP and glutathione content. 

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31. Dec. 2002

A Method for the In Vitro Exposure of Human Cells to Environmental and Complex Gaseous Mixtures: Application to Various Types of Atmosphere


Issue 30, pp. 433-441, 2002

Michaela Aufderheide, Jan W. Knebel and Detlef Ritter


This study presents the testing of various generated atmospheres under the same cell-exposure conditions and demonstartion of studying dose-dependent cytotoxic effects in human lung epithelial cells exposed to air contaminated with single gases or complex mixtures, such as diesel exhaust fumes and side-stream cigarette smoke.

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30. Jun. 2002

In vitro genotoxicity assay of sidestream smoke using a human bronchial epithelial cell line

Food and Chemical Toxicology

Volume 40, Issue 6, pp. 845-850, June, 2002

L. Wolz, G. Krause, G. Scherer, M. Aufderheide, U. Mohr


In this study, genotoxic effects of sidestream cigarette smoke at different concentrations were assessed using the alkaline comet assay. HFBE 21 cells were exposed to clean air, nitrogen dioxide or sidestream smoke. 

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30. Apr. 2002

Exposure of human lung cells to native diesel motor exhaust-development of an optimized in vitro test strategy

Toxicology in Vitro

Volume 16, Issue 2, pp. 185-192, April, 2002

J.W. Knebel, D. Ritter, M. Aufderheide


The experimental set-up allows the investigation of native diesel exhaust using short distances for the transportation of the gas to the target cells. Cell viability was not influenced by the exposure to clean air, whereas dose-dependent cytotoxicity was found contingent on the dosage of exhaust.

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31. Mar. 2002

Responses of cultured lung epithelial cells to airborne diesel emissions

Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction Workshop

Paper issued March, 2002

J. C. Seagrave, J. D. McDonald, and J. L. Mauderly

Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute

Investigation of diesel exhaust on human lung cells. Results were evaluated by measurement of ATP, WST-1, LDH release, IL-8, Glutathione and alkaline phosphatase.

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