Advanced in vitro exposure systems.

22. May. 2017

Regulating temperature and relative humidity in air–liquid interface in vitro systems eliminates cytotoxicity resulting from control air exposures

DOI: 10.1039/c7tx00109f
Jose Zavala,a Rebecca Greenan,b Q. Todd Krantz,a David M. DeMarini,a Mark Higuchi,a M. Ian Gilmour a and Paul A. Whiteb

aNHEERL, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711, USA.
bMechanistic Studies Division, Environmental Health Science and Research Bureau, Health Canada, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0K9, Canada.


The aim of this study was to test whether temperature and relative humidity has an influence on the cytotoxicity to BEAS-2B cells on a VITROCELL® 6 air-liquid interface system by measuring the viability (WST-1 cell proliferation assay) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release.
Note from VITROCELL: We inform our customers about the possible need for humidification during installation and training. Among the need for humidification, possible other reasons for low clean air viability are clean air quality and cell handling procedures. Please see our website chapter on humidification for further information http://www.vitrocell.com/inhalation-toxicology/humidification

 

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15. May. 2017

Human Asthmatic Bronchial Cells Are More Susceptible to Subchronic Repeated Exposures of Aerosolized Carbon Nanotubes At Occupationally Relevant Doses Than Healthy Cells

DOI: 10.1021/acsnano.7b01992

Savvina Chortarea,1 Hana Barosova,1 Martin James David Clift,2 Peter Wick,3 Alke Petri-Fink,1,4 and Barbara Rothen-Rutishauser,1

1BioNanomaterials, Adolphe Merkle Institute, University of Fribourg, CH-1700 Fribourg, Switzerland
2In Vitro Toxicology Group, Swansea University Medical School, Swansea SA2 8PP, Wales, U.K.
3Laboratory for Materials-Biology Interactions, Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials, Science and Technology, 9014 St Gallen, Switzerland
4Department of Chemistry, University of Fribourg, CH-1700 Fribourg, Switzerland

The aim of this study was to realistically mimic subchronic inhalation of multiwalled carbone nanotubes in vitro, using the air−liquid interface cell exposure system for aerosol exposures on reconstituted human bronchial tissue from healthy and asthmatic donors. Cytotoxicity, cell morphology, cilia beating frequency, mucociliary clearance, gene expression analysis of oxidative stress and (pro‑)inflammatory markers as well as (pro‑)inflammatory cytokine secretion were successfully observed.

 

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1. May. 2017

Proof of Concept of the VITROCELL® Dry Powder Chamber: A New In Vitro Test System for the Controlled Deposition of Aerosol Formulations

Marius Hittinger,1 Sarah Barthold,2 Lorenz Siebenbürger,1 Kilian Zäh,3 Alexander Gress,1 Sabrina Guenther,1 Birgit Wiegand,1 Carsten Boerger,1 Markus Berger,4 Tobias Krebs,4 Henrik Groß,1 and Claus-Michael Lehr1,5

1PharmBioTec GmbH, Saarbrücken, Germany
2Saarland University, Department of Pharmacy, Saarbrücken, Germany
3Scienceneering UG, Blieskastel, Germany
4Vitrocell Systems GmbH, Waldkirch, Germany
5Helmholtz Institute for Pharmaceutical Research Saarland (HIPS), HZI, Saarbrücken, Germany

The VITROCELL® Dry Powder Chamber is designed for aerosol deposition of different sized particles separated by their time of flight. For the development of this new instrument salbutamol sulphate was successfully exposed to human pulmonary epithelial cell culture by sedimentation and diffusion in vitro.

 

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6. Mar. 2017

Endothelial responses of the alveolar barrier in vitro in a dose-controlled exposure to diesel exhaust particulate matter

DOI 10.1186/s12989-017-0186-4

Sebastian G. Klein1,2, Sébastien Cambier1, Jennifer Hennen2, Sylvain Legay1, Tommaso Serchi1, Inge Nelissen3, Aline Chary1, Elisa Moschini1, Andreas Krein1, Brunhilde Blömeke2 and Arno C. Gutleb1

1Luxembourg Institute of Science and Technology (LIST), Environmental Research and Innovation (ERIN) Department, 41, rue du Brill, L-4422 Belvaux, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg
2Department of Environmental Toxicology, University Trier, Universitätsring 15, 54296 Trier, Germany


In this study tetracultures of alveolar epithelial cells (A549) were exposed to different doses of DEPM (SRM2975) at the air-liquid-interface to present the first approach to combine a complex 3D tetraculture in vitro system with native aerosol exposure equipment to mimic the exposure situation in vivo as closely as possible.

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1. Mar. 2017

Characterization and Application of the VITROCELL VC1 Smoke Exposure System and 3D EpiAirway Models for Toxicological and e-Cigarette Evaluations

DOI: 10.1089/aivt.2016.0035
Wanda Fields,1 Anna Maione,2 Brian Keyser,1 and Betsy Bombick1

1RAI Services Company, Scientific and Regulatory Affairs, Winston-Salem, North Carolina.
2MatTek Corporation, Ashland, Massachusetts.

The aim of this study was to assess the effects of aerosol from two reference combustible cigarettes and two e-cigarettes by using the VC1 smoking machine with the air-liquid interface and to evaluate donor-to-donor variability of three EpiAirway tissue donors with the endpoints viability, barrier integrity, and gene promoter/expression regulation.


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31. Jan. 2017

Nicotine Quantification In Vitro: A Consistent Dosimetry Marker for e-Cigarette Aerosol and Cigarette Smoke Generation

DOI: 10.1089/aivt.2016.0025

Jason Adamson1,* Xiang Li2,* Huapeng Cui2, David Thorne1, Fuwei Xie2, and Marianna Gaca1
1British American Tobacco, R&D, Southampton, United Kingdom.
2Zhengzhou Tobacco Research Institute of China National Tobacco Corporation, Zhengzhou, PR China.
*Joint first authors.

A VC 10 Smoking Robot was designated to look at the generated aerosol nicotine concentration from different e-cigarettes compared with the 3R4F reference cigarette in two different laboratories. The aerosol was trapped and the nicotine concentration was analysed by different kinds of mass spectometry.
Nicotine assessment across the tested e-cigarette categories showed consistent delivery of nicotine per puff within products and that the method was sensitive enough to detect different levels of nicotine across products. Good overlap in nicotine results were obtained in the two different laboratories.

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3. Jan. 2017

Development, qualification, validation and application of the neutral red uptake assay in Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells using a VITROCELL® VC10® smoke exposure system

Wanda Fields a, Kathy Fowler a, Victoria Hargreaves b, Lesley Reeve b, Betsy Bombick a
a RAI Services Company, Scientific & Regulatory Affairs, 401 North Main Street,Winston-Salem, NC 27101, USA
b Covance Laboratories Ltd., Otley Road, Harrogate, North Yorkshire HG1 3PY, UK

This study discribes the development, validation and application of the NRU assay in Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells, following exposure to fresh whole smoke generated with the VITROCELL®VC10®system. The VITROCELL® VC10® successfully provided consistent generation and delivery of whole smoke from a cigarette (3R4F) and a primarily “heat-not-burn” cigarette (Eclipse).

 

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16. Dec. 2016

'Clean-burning' Fuels May be Worse for Your Lungs

Nala Rogers for 'Inside Science'

A report about artificial lung reveals surprising dangers from pellet burners and diesel-fueled ships at the University of Rostock and Helmholtz Zentrum München in Germany.

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7. Dec. 2016

The comparative in vitro assessment of e-cigarette and cigarette smoke aerosols using the gH2AX assay and applied dose measurements

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.toxlet.2016.12.006

David Thorne, Sophie Larard, Andrew Baxter, Clive Meredith, Marianna Gaҫa

British American Tobacco, R&D Centre, Southampton, Hampshire, SO15 8TL, UK

 

H I G H L I G H T S
Cigarette smoke generates a dose dependent increase in double strand breaks.
E-cigarette aerosols did not generate any increases in double strand breaks above control levels.
E-cigarette exposures were approximately 28-fold greater than that of cigarette smoke exposures.
In vitro dosimetry ensures accurate interpretation of the data, and confirms delivery of test agent.

In vitro dosimetry allows cross-product, study and system comparisons.

 

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3. Nov. 2016

Air-liquid interface exposure to aerosols of poorly soluble nanomaterials induces different biological activation levels compared to exposure to suspensions

DOI 10.1186/s12989-016-0171-3

Thomas Loret1,2, Emmanuel Peyret1, Marielle Dubreuil1, Olivier Aguerre-Chariol3, Christophe Bressot3, Olivier le Bihan3, Tanguy Amodeo3, Bénédicte Trouiller1, Anne Braun1, Christophe Egles2,4 and Ghislaine Lacroix1


1
Institut National de l’Environnement Industriel et des Risques (INERIS), (DRC/VIVA/TOXI), Parc Technologique ALATA—BP 2, Verneuil-en-Halatte F-60550, France.
2Laboratoire BioMécanique et BioIngénierie (BMBI), Université de Technologie de Compiègne (UTC), UMR CNRS 7338, Compiègne 60205, France.
3Institut National de l’Environnement Industriel et des Risques (INERIS), (DRC/CARA/NOVA), Parc Technologique ALATA—BP 2, Verneuil-en-Halatte F-60550, France.
4Department of Biomedical Engineering, Tufts University, Medford, MA, USA.
 

A549 alveolar cells in monocultures and in co-cultures with THP-1 macrophages were exposed to aerosols of inhalable and poorly soluble nanomaterials. The results are evaluated by using the Alamar blue®, LDH, Dichlorofluorescein (DCF) and ELISA Assay and shows that the air-liquid interface represents a valid and sensitive method to assess the toxicity of several poorly soluble nanomaterials.

 

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